This paintings deals accomplished, authoritative insurance of present info on indigenous fermented meals of the area, classifying fermentation based on variety. This variation presents either new and accelerated information at the antiquity and position of fermented meals in human lifestyles, fermentations concerning an alkaline response, tempe and meat substitutes, amazake and kombucha, and more.;College or collage bookstores might order 5 or extra copies at a different scholar rate that is to be had on request from Marcel Dekker, Inc.
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Additional info for Handbook of Indigenous Fermented Foods, Second Edition, Revised and Expanded (Food Science and Technology)
It is estimated that 1 kg of raw soybeans can be made into 42 packets (48 g each) of tempe which retail at 3 packets for U. S. $0. 10. The cost of 1 kg of beans is approximately U. S. $0. 60, thus a gross profit of U. S. $0. 80 can be made from each kilogram of beans processed. This is based on the assumption that the manufacturers do not have to purchase banana leaves, as the plants are commonly grown within the compounds of their homes, and it does not take into account the cost of fuel. Tempe Production in Other Parts of the World Shurtleff and Aoyagi (1984) reported that the largest tempe production in the world was MarusanAi (Japan), which manufactured 6885 kg (15,146 lbs) per week. The largest company in the U. S. was Quong Hop/Pacific Tempe in Cali Figure 23 Inside a cottage tempe factory in malaysia. (Courtesy K. H. Steinkraus, Cornell University, Geneva, New York. ) Page 50 fornia, which produced 3182 kg (7000 lbs)/week. The second largest production in the world was Tempe Production, Inc. in the Netherlands, which produced 6000 kg (13,200 lbs) per week. The retail price of tempe in the U. S. ranged from $1. 70 to $2. 50/lb (Shurtleff and Aoyagi, 1984). Production of Tempe Inoculum Because of the need to produce stable, preferably powdered, tempe inocula, a number or research laboratories have worked on the problem. Steinkraus et al. (1965a) basically used the tempe process to produce inocula, except that the soybean cotyledon substrate was sterilized (Figure 24) and aseptic conditions were maintained during the processing of the inoculum. Rusmin and Ko (1974) used hydrated polished rice as a substrate but made no attempt to maintain sterility of substrate or aseptic conditions. Their inoculum contained large numbers of bacteria. Yeoh and Merican (1977) used rice flour for a substrate (Figure 25). Wang et al. (1975a), Hesseltine et al. (1976), and Wang and Hesseltine (1979) recommended growing R. oligosporus on polished rice or rice:wheat bran (4:1) or wheat:wheat bran (4:1) at a substratetowater ratio of 10:6 for 4 or 5 days at 32°C. The substrates were sterilized (20 min at 121°C) in Erlenmeyer flasks. Following sporulation, the cultures were freezedried and pulverized. At the Bandung Institute of Technology, spores of R. Oligosporus are inoculated on to steamed cooked rice and incubated at 37°C until the organism sporulates and the rice becomes dry. It is then ground to a powder and stored in plastic bags until used. One gram of inoculum is used per kilogram of substrate (Hermana, 1972; Ibrahim and Gandjar, 1978). Based upon the studies of Hesseltine and his associates, rice or rice:wheat bran would appear to be the preferred substrates for production of tempe inoculum because the yield of viable spores is higher than it is on soybean cotyledons. Consequently, the number of spores surviving freeze drying also is higher. In addition, the dried spore powders retain their viability to a high degree for at least 6 months at 22°C. Figure 24 Flow sheet: Production of tempe inoculum.